Note: This tutorial is about using Git in bash/cmd, which we highly recommend, as it’s cleaner. Github is a totally different thing, it is the web interface or app.
How to install Git
First step is installing Git. Supposing you are on a Debian-based distribution, this will do:
$ sudo apt-get install git
For installing Git on a Mac OS system, you can use the homebrew package manager as follows:
$ brew install git
Getting Started with Addy
First of all, you have to fork the repository you are going to contribute to. This will basically give you a clone of the repository to your own repository. You can do this by opening the specific repository of
addy-org and then clicking
Fork in the upper right corner.
Cloning repository into your local system
Now you should clone the repository to your local machine so that you can have access to all the code locally and start fixing issues! To do this, you can use the following procedure to clone the specific repository into your local system.
- Open you terminal/ cmd/ git-bash whatever you would use to run the git commands.
- Navigate to the folder where you want to save your code. (Use
cd, ls, etc.terminal commands)
- Now type
$ git clone -o upstream <repository_url>
<repository_url>is the whole url of the git repository you want to clone
upstreamis just a name we used for simplicity. You can name it however you want.
- to clone addy-org/Addy project,
$ git clone -o upstream https://github.com/addy-org/Addy
- to clone addy-org/Addy-Android project,
$ git clone -o upstream https://github.com/addy-org/Addy-Android
Congratulations! now you have all your code on your local machine!
Getting to work
Before starting to edit the code, make sure to read & check the following to avoid problems later on.
First let’s talk about remotes. To communicate with the outside world, git uses what are called remotes. These are repositories other than the one on your local disk which you can push your changes into (so that other people can see them) or pull from (so that you can get others changes). Now you should add a remote of your fork to your local machine so that you can pull and push your commits. This can be simply done by using the command:
$ git remote add myfork <your_fork_link>
myforkis just a name we used for simplicity. You can name it however you want.
The next thing you should know before getting down to work is how to check on the changes you’ve made to your project, and your current branch. The ability to check your current branch is also extremely important, as you’ll see in the next section. The command to check this information is:
$ git status
Before we move onto the next section, you need to know about a very important branch called master. Master is the default branch that git checkouts for you when you clone a repository. For the sake of avoiding major problems, we should never develop on our fork’s master branch. This is why we create new branches, which leads us to the next section.
Creating a new branch
To start working on an issue, you first need to create a new branch where you will work. Do not change files when you are on your fork’s master branch. The reason why you should never develop on your master branch is because your fork’s master branch should always be synchronised with the main repository’s master branch, which is much more challenging if it has new commits on it. This is why we create our own branch:
$ git checkout -b branchname
checkoutwill switch to the newly created branch.
-bwill create a new branch if the branch doesn’t already exist.
Checking your work
After the issue is fixed and you have tested it (tests are very important! never submit a change that isn’t tested), you should check your progress. Type:
$ git status
It will give you an idea about what files are currently modified and which branch you’re developing on.
If there’s something you don’t find, you can always use:
$ git grep "syntax"
This will search through the whole repository and show you the files that contain the syntax.
Adding the files
First, make sure you’re on the correct branch and not developing on master! You can check your branch with:
$ git status
Now you can add your files/folders to the current commit:
$ git add <file/folder_name>
Do this until you have added all the files needed for your commit. You can also simple use
$ git add .
to add all the files at once.
Committing the files
After adding the files, the next step is to commit them. You can see the commit guidelines to know how to write some good commits.
To commit the added files, type:
$ git commit
This will lead you to a text editor. Write you commit message there, you may read the commit guidelines
Commits usually consists of two main parts.
- commit message
- commit description
Gemfile.lock: Update nokogiri version // Commit Message
// Commit Description This upgrades nokogiri version to 1.8.1 and hence other dependencies are updated too This was done due to a potential security vulnerability stated by GitHub
Now that your message is written, you will have to save the file. Press escape to exit insert mode, and save the file (in Vim that is being done by pressing shift + Z twice).
Pushing the commit
Before you push the commit, ensure that you are not developing on master again by running:
$ git status
Now you will need to push the commit to the fork. All you have to do is:
$ git push myfork
It will most likely ask for your login credentials from GitHub. Type them in, and your commit will be pushed online.
Creating a Pull Request
Now you would like to get your commit into the actual master branch. Making your changes available to all future users of the project. For this, you will have to create a Pull Request. To do this, you will have to go on GitHub, on your fork page. You should change the branch to the one you have worked on and submitted the commit on. Now you can create a Pull Request by clicking the
New Pull Request button in the pull request tab.
Congratulations! You have just created your first Pull Request! You are awesome!
Note: If you see any error like
1 commit ahead of the master branchyou need to sync your local fork with the remote repository before sending a pull request.
Now after you have created the Pull Request, there are two possibilities:
your PR will get accepted, and your commit will get merged into the master branch - sadly, this rarely happens on the first Pull Request
your PR will be rejected. There are 2 cases when a PR is rejected:
- Test fails
- Reviewer wants something changed
It’s highly unlikely that your PR will be accepted on the first attempt - but don’t worry that’s just how it works.
Now if you need to modify your code, you can simply edit it again, add it and commit it using
$ git commit -a --amend
This will edit your last commit message. If your commit message was considered fine by our reviewers, you can simply send it again like this. If not, edit it and send it. Now you have successfully edited your last commit!
If you need to rebase, or want to edit an older commit from your branch, we have an amazing tutorial that you can watch to understand how it works.
As people work on Addy new commits will be added. This will result in your local fork going out of sync with the remote repository. To sync your changes with the remote repository run the following commands in the desired branch:
$ git fetch upstream $ git rebase upstream/master
This assumes that the remote upstream is the original repository at addy-org, not your fork.
This will fetch the commits from the remote repository and will merge it into the branch where you are currently working, and move all of the local commits that are ahead of the rebased branch to the top of the history on that branch.
After following these instructions when you try to push to remote you may get fast-forwarding error. If that is the case, then you will have to force push since you are attempting to rewrite the git commit history. To do that append the –force argument in the push command:
$ git push myfork --force
Never force-push on the master branch, or any branch not owned by you.
To verify whether you have rebased correctly, go to the web page of the branch in your fork. If it says your branch is n commits behind Addy:master (or whichever repo you are contributing to), then you haven’t correctly rebased yet. Otherwise, you’re good to go!
Squashing your commits
It’s possible that you have more than one commit and you want them to be squashed into a single commit. You can take your series of commits and squash them down into a single commit with the interactive rebasing tool. To squash your commits run the following command:
$ git rebase -i master
An editor will be fired up with all the commits in your current branch (ignoring merge commits), which come after the given commit. Keep the first one as “pick” and on the second and subsequent commits with “squash”. After saving, another editor will be fired up with all the messages of commits which you want to squash. Clean up all the messages and add a new message to be displayed for the single commit.
Sometimes it might happen that you have committed the wrong files and you want to revert the commit. Hence, in your local repo, to revert the file to the state before the previous commit run the following:
$ git reset --soft HEAD^
--softhelps you retain the changes and reverts the commit, you can also use
--hardwhich will also remove the changes you have done.
If you want to revert multiple commits execute the following:
$ git reset --soft HEAD~N
Nstands for the number of commits from the HEAD commit (latest commit) you want to reset.
For Example: to reset last 3 commits, execute:
$ git reset --soft HEAD~3
Useful Git commands
This section will briefly explain some other Git commands you will most likely use and will really make your work easier.
$ git config
git configcommand lets you configure your Git installation (or an individual repository) from the command line. This command can define everything from user info to preferences to the behavior of a repository.
$ git log
git logcommand displays committed snapshots. It lets you list the project history, filter it, and search for specific changes. While git status lets you inspect the working directory and the staging area, git log only operates on the committed history.
$ git push --force myfork
While we normally use
git push myforkto push your commit to your fork, after further editing and work on your commit, you will need to use the
--forceparameter to your push to automatically update your Pull Request.
$ git reset --hard
Reset the staging area and the working directory to match the most recent commit. In addition to unstaging changes, the –hard flag tells Git to overwrite all changes in the working directory, too. Put another way: this obliterates all uncommitted changes, so make sure you really want to throw away your local developments before using it.
$ git clean
The git clean command removes untracked files from your working directory. This is really more of a convenience command, since it’s trivial to see which files are untracked with git status and remove them manually. Like an ordinary rm command, git clean is not undoable, so make sure you really want to delete the untracked files before you run it.
$ git checkout <branch>
git checkoutcommand is used to switch to another branch in the repository. Here
is the name of the branch you want to switch to.
$ git rebase
Rebasing is the process of moving a branch to a new base commit. From a content perspective, rebasing really is just moving a branch from one commit to another. But internally, Git accomplishes this by creating new commits and applying them to the specified base—it’s literally rewriting your project history. It’s very important to understand that, even though the branch looks the same, it’s composed of entirely new commits.
$ git rebase -i
git rebasewith the -i flag begins an interactive rebasing session. Instead of blindly moving all of the commits to the new base, interactive rebasing gives you the opportunity to alter individual commits in the process. This lets you clean up history by removing, splitting, and altering an existing series of commits. It’s like
git commit --amendon steroids. Usage is
$ git rebase -i <base>. Rebase the current branch onto
, but use an interactive rebasing session. This opens an editor where you can enter commands (described below) for each commit to be rebased. These commands determine how individual commits will be transferred to the new base. You can also reorder the commit listing to change the order of the commits themselves.
If you would like more information/commands, please use your favourite search engine to look for it. Git is widely used throughout the world and there are many good tutorials and git related Q&A threads out there.
You can also visit ohshitgit.com, a great site to help you git out of you git messes really quickly.
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